FRAMily 2015



The FRAM Sandbox Facility

Extending the capabilities of the FMV

There is an increasing interest in utilising the FRAM approach for the analysis of what exactly is going on in complex sociotechnical systems in practical high hazard environments. There are, for example, a number of ongoing projects at the moment in aviation, self-driving vehicles and, of course, on the challenges of the COVID 19 pandemic for healthcare responses. But as well as these practical applications there is an increasing interest from the academic community, in extending and developing further, the underpinning concepts, as shown in the recent review (below)

These groups are thus interested in taking the modelling power of the FRAM approach to the next level. Their interests include exploring in more detail how interactions occur and how the effects of variability can be addressed and predicted more formally, as well as enabling dynamic visualisation of processes and the quantification of expected outcomes.

What makes this now more attractive, has been the development of a rigorous model checking methodology, the FRAM Model Interpreter, FMI (Hollnagel, E,) ( )

To support these developments the FRAM Model Visualiser has also been given extra facilities, which now include an option to use, what is essentially a laboratory sand box to provide research laboratory experimental facilities for different groups to utilise.

From time to time, it is planned to add additional features that are still under development and not officially released as part of the FMV Pro version, but may be made available to groups for the purposes of experimentation and feedback from the users.


Building on the FMI functionality, the metadata feature in the FMV, now provides the ability to calculate metadata values as Functions are activated during the FMI cycles.

The manual details these here

The calculations are expressed as user defined equations that can reference other metadata keys, standard variables, standard mathematical functions, logic conditions, and mathematical operators. One or two resulting metadata values can then be expressed as a coloured visualisation within each function. The colours and value ranges can be customised by the user.

When you Ctrl-Click a Function, or select and press Ctrl-M, the metadata section will appear above the model in the visualiser window and display the extended features.

Key/Value pairs

The first two text boxes are for entering metadata as a list of key/value pairs, as is already available in the standard FMV Pro versions. A Key is entered in the first box shaded grey, but it will not be saved for the selected Function until a Value or an Equation is also entered for that Key. The corresponding Value is entered in the second text box.

When a Key is saved for a Function, It will be shown along with all saved Key names when any other Function is selected. As such, the Key names become common across all Functions. However, the corresponding Values are unique to each individual Function.

Key names can be used as Variable names and referenced in Equations if they start with a capital letter (this is to differentiate between Variables and mathematical functions).


To calculate the Value of a Key for a Function (when it is activated by the FMI) click the ‘=’ button and another text input box will appear for entering an equation.

Equations can contain Key names to reference other Values that appear above them in the same Function, or Standard Variables can be used to reference Values from upstream Functions, connected by couplings that are activated during the FMI cycles. This is explained in further sections.

To turn the equation off, click the ‘=’ button again (this is a toggle button) and the equation will disappear, it is still saved but will not be used to calculate the Value.

Functions/Variables List

The next section is a list of available mathematical functions and variables available for use in Equations. You can switch between these two types by using the Functions/Variables toggle buttons above the list. The Variables list is initially empty but will be populated as you create Keys and make selections within the model.

Display Results

The top colour range is used to display results in the inside top of each function, the bottom range in the inside bottom of each function. Click on any of the three main colour circles to change the colour. The intermediate colours are blended from the three main colours.

The number boxes below the colour ranges are used to convert the Values to the colour range for dsiplay.

The last two text boxes on the right labeled ‘Key 1’ and ‘Key 2’ are for selecting which of the Keys provide values for displaying the results, Key 1 for the top range and Key 2 for the bottom range.

The 9th FRAMily meeting/workshop, June 11-12 2015

School of Applied Psychology (APS), University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW)

Olten, Switzerland


The program for this year's meeting is available here.


Alex Ackermann, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW

Andrea Franz, GL, Swissi AG

Andreas Blum, Head Operational Feedback Group, NPP Leibstadt AG

Armin Feurer, Ernst Basler und Partner AG,

Barbara Linz, Neosys AG,

Beat Kistler, Safety & Risk Officer, SR Technics

Caroline Kruseman, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW / NOSE Design AG

Christian Kunz, Research Assistant, School of Applied Psychology FHNW

Colleen Butler, Senior Human Factors Specialist, Health and Safety Laboratory

Cornelia Ryser, Dr./Human & Organizational Factors Specialist, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI

Cornelia Schneeberger, Projektleiterin Safety, SBB AG Konzern Sicherheit & Qualität

Elvira Porrini, Geschäftsführerin, X-CHALLENGE CONSULTING

Eric van Kleef, Ph.D. student, Delft University of Technology

Erik Hollnagel, Professor, University of Southern Denmark / Region of Southern Denmark

Gesa Praetorius, PhD/ Research Associate, Maritime Risk and System Safety/ World Maritime University

Harald Kolrep, Prof. Dr., HMKW Hochschule für Medien Kommunikation und Wirtschaft

Herbert Manser, riskCare,

Hillary Bennett, Dr / Director, Leading Safety

Holger Knissel, Dr./ HOF Specialist, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI

Jasmin Zimmermann, Researcher School of Applied Psychology FHNW,

Jeanette Hounsgaard, Deputy Manager, Centre for Quality

Jens O. Meissner, Prof. Dr. / Co-Head MAS Risk Management, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts

John Van den Bremen, Fachleiter Arbeitssicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz, SBB Cargo

John Lovegrove, Owner, Canary Designs Limited

Jonas Brüngger, Researcher, School of Applied Psychology FHNW

Julia Bezzola, Fachspezialistin Meldewesen - Ereignisanalyse, SBB Personenverkehr

Katarzyna Hongler, Dr.,

Katrin Fischer, Prof. Dr., School of Applied Psychology FHNW

Luis López, Research Assistant, ZHAW Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften

Luzia Kopp, lic.phil I. / MAS in Corporate Finance / Facilitator / CEO aMedia Unternehmen beraten & entwickeln,

Manuela Vieli, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW/ SBB

Marc Werfs, PhD student, University of St Andrews

Marcel Huser, Riskmanager Safety, Safety & Quality,  SBB

Marcel Lüthi, Airlines Safety Management,

Martin Rejzek, Dipl. el. Ing FH, Zurich University of Applied Sciences,  IAMP

Melina Zeballos, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW

Michael Grüninger, Managing Director, Great Circle Services AG

Nicolas Wertz, Human Factors and Risk Management Engineer, Infrabel

Nicole Stoller, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW

Nippin Anand, Principal Specialist Safety Management Systems, DNV GL

Noëmi Cerny, Research Assistant, School of Applied Psychology FHNW

Pascale Stalder, Assistant,  Nuclear Fuel Division, Kernkraftwerk Gösgen-Däniken AG

Patricia Schauenburg, Quality Manager in organ donation and transplantation Swisstransplant,

Pedro Ferreira, Assistant Professor/researcher, ULHT-DREAMS

Philip Voss, Dr / Director, Leading Safety

Reta Lusser, Projektleiterin Betreibssicherheit, SBB AG Konzern Sicherheit & Qualität

Roberto Gnesotto, MD; MSc Community Health; MS Health Policy and , Management; MS Patient Safety Leadership

Romano Luisoni, PricewaterhouseCoopers AG,

Sandra-Miriam Engel, Operational Feedback Group, NPP Leibstadt AG

Sarah Kramer, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW

Sean Reid, Management Consultant, Kanovis GmbH

Sebastien Constant, Editions Seb CONSTANT,

Simon Steiner, MSc student of Applied Psychology, FHNW

Toni Wäfler, Prof. Dr., School of Applied Psychology FHNW

Tony Wynn, Senior Human Factors Specialist, Health and Safety Laboratory


Jeanette Hounsgaard. From policy to practice: a new way of developing protocols that work. Can FRAM contribute to a successful implementation of a new protocol?

Jeanette Hounsgaard. Facilitation of FRAM by material repre-sentation. What do the FRAM hexagon and the LEGO block have in common?

Patricia Schauenburg and Michael Grüninger. Analysis of Interdependencies within the Organ Allocating Function of Swisstransplant

Simon Steiner. Resources and dependencies in the departure of suburban trains

Marc Werfs. cFRAM – Adapting to technological discontinuities while becoming more resilient

Gesa Praetorius. Applying Functional Resonance Analy-sis Method (FRAM) to enhance Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) within the maritime domain

Noëmi Cerny. Use of FRAM in aviation

Group discussions

Refinement of the six aspects of the FRAM (Lead: Eric van Kleef)

The evolution of FRAM tools and the future needs / requirements (Lead: Pedro Ferreira)

LEANed processes: What happens when linearity meets complexity? (Lead: Jeanette Hounsgaard)

Comparison of methods (FRAM and traditional): Everyday operations related to medication use and adverse drug events (ADEs) (Lead: Roberto Gnesotto)

The contents of this discussion comprises two files: a narrative and the FRAM model.

How can we operationalize resilience and detect / identify indicators which enable resilience? (Lead: Luzìa Kopp)

Breakout session (FRAM exercises) (Lead: Gesa Praetorius, Jeanette Hounsgaard, Milena Studic)

We are looking forward to seeing the results of using this new facility and seeing the range and scope of applications and studies significantly extended. Perhaps we will see some examples at the next FRAMily Workshop in Kyoto next year, COVID willing.

© Copyright Erik Hollnagel 2016. All Rights Reserved.