FRAMily 2017



Extending the capabilities of the FMV

There is an increasing interest in utilising the FRAM approach for the analysis of what exactly is going on in complex sociotechnical systems in practical high hazard environments. There are, for example, a number of ongoing projects at the moment in aviation, self-driving vehicles and, of course, on the challenges of the COVID 19 pandemic for healthcare responses. But as well as these practical applications there is an increasing interest from the academic community, in extending and developing further, the underpinning concepts, as shown in the recent review (below)

These groups are thus interested in taking the modelling power of the FRAM approach to the next level. Their interests include exploring in more detail how interactions occur and how the effects of variability can be addressed and predicted more formally, as well as enabling dynamic visualisation of processes and the quantification of expected outcomes.

What makes this now more attractive, has been the development of a rigorous model checking methodology, the FRAM Model Interpreter, FMI (Hollnagel, E,) ( )

To support these developments the FRAM Model Visualiser has also been given extra facilities, which now include an option to use, what is essentially a laboratory sand box to provide research laboratory experimental facilities for different groups to utilise.

From time to time, it is planned to add additional features that are still under development and not officially released as part of the FMV Pro version, but may be made available to groups for the purposes of experimentation and feedback from the users.


Building on the FMI functionality, the metadata feature in the FMV, now provides the ability to calculate metadata values as Functions are activated during the FMI cycles.

The manual details these here

The calculations are expressed as user defined equations that can reference other metadata keys, standard variables, standard mathematical functions, logic conditions, and mathematical operators. One or two resulting metadata values can then be expressed as a coloured visualisation within each function. The colours and value ranges can be customised by the user.

When you Ctrl-Click a Function, or select and press Ctrl-M, the metadata section will appear above the model in the visualiser window and display the extended features.

Key/Value pairs

The first two text boxes are for entering metadata as a list of key/value pairs, as is already available in the standard FMV Pro versions. A Key is entered in the first box shaded grey, but it will not be saved for the selected Function until a Value or an Equation is also entered for that Key. The corresponding Value is entered in the second text box.

When a Key is saved for a Function, It will be shown along with all saved Key names when any other Function is selected. As such, the Key names become common across all Functions. However, the corresponding Values are unique to each individual Function.

Key names can be used as Variable names and referenced in Equations if they start with a capital letter (this is to differentiate between Variables and mathematical functions).


To calculate the Value of a Key for a Function (when it is activated by the FMI) click the ‘=’ button and another text input box will appear for entering an equation.

Equations can contain Key names to reference other Values that appear above them in the same Function, or Standard Variables can be used to reference Values from upstream Functions, connected by couplings that are activated during the FMI cycles. This is explained in further sections.

To turn the equation off, click the ‘=’ button again (this is a toggle button) and the equation will disappear, it is still saved but will not be used to calculate the Value.

Functions/Variables List

The next section is a list of available mathematical functions and variables available for use in Equations. You can switch between these two types by using the Functions/Variables toggle buttons above the list. The Variables list is initially empty but will be populated as you create Keys and make selections within the model.

Display Results

The top colour range is used to display results in the inside top of each function, the bottom range in the inside bottom of each function. Click on any of the three main colour circles to change the colour. The intermediate colours are blended from the three main colours.

The number boxes below the colour ranges are used to convert the Values to the colour range for dsiplay.

The last two text boxes on the right labeled ‘Key 1’ and ‘Key 2’ are for selecting which of the Keys provide values for displaying the results, Key 1 for the top range and Key 2 for the bottom range.

The 11th FRAMily meeting/workshop,May 24 - 26 2017

University of Rome, Italy


The programme for the 2017 FRAMily meeting is here.


Manuela Vieli                                                                              Swiss Federal Railways

Rogier Woltjer                                                              Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI

Ivonne Andrade Herrera                                                                     SINTEF/NTNU

Hideki Nomoto                                                                                        JAMSS

Pedro Ferreira                                                                                Universidad de Granada

Jose Juan Canas                                                                             Universidad de Granada

Jeanette Hounsgaard                                                         Centre of Quality Region Syddanmark

Arie Adriaensen                                                                                Lund University

Johan Bergstrom                                                                              Lund University

Miha Pielick                                                                                   Slovenia Control

Shigeru Kusakabe                                                                            University of Nagasaki

Doug Smith                                                                        Memorial University of Newfoundland

Abdullah Abalkhi                                                                             Delft University

Cristina Martelli                                                                             University of Florence

Maria Flora Salvatori                                                                      University of Florence

Michele Buonsanti                                                                      University of Reggio Calabria

Federico Terenzi                                                                           HUMANA Consulting

Annamaria Ciccarelli                                                                   CAL srl Servizi Logistici

David Slater                                                                                    Cardiff University

Guillermo Gomez Garay                                                                  FORCE Technology

John Hutchins                                                                                     STC-Group

Giulio Di Gravio                                                                            Sapienza University of Rome

Francesco Costantino                                                                   Sapienza University of Rome

Riccardo Patriarca                                                                       Sapienza University of Rome

Massimo Tronci                                                                            Sapienza University of Rome

Maeve O'Loughlin                                                                          Middlesex University

Giusy Sciacca                                                                                       ANACNA

Keita Sakemi                                                                                         JAMSS

Ichiro Okabe                                                                                Tokyo Institute of Technology

Yasutaka Michiura                                                                                  JAMSS

Lacey Colligan                                                                               Sharp End Advisory; LLC

Giuseppe Fauci                                                                            Aeronautica Militare

Marco Moesker                                     NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research)

Stefano Piccoli                                                                                     RAMS&E

Ray Reagan                                                                                        Airborne AS

Erik Hollnagel                                                                  Centre of Quality Region Syddanmark

Gianluca Del Pinto                                                                                ANACNA

Mario Leone-

Emanuele Bellini                                                                            University of Florence

Luca Leone-

Romano Luisoni                                                                                        PwC

Andrea Falegnami                                                                        Sapienza University of Rome

Filippo De Carlo                                                                               University of Florence

Ahmad Bahoo Toroody                                                                      University of Florence

Natalia Trapani                                                                         Università degli Studi di Catania

Andrea Ferracuti                                                                           Sapienza University of Rome

Eleonora Cartoni                                                                           Sapienza University of Rome

Tommaso Giovannelli                                                                     Sapienza University of Rome

Camilla Bianco                                                                              Sapienza University of Rome

Anna Lisa Demofont                                                                      Sapienza University of Rome

Giulia Reggiani                                                                              Sapienza University of Rome

Ruggiero Seccia                                                                             Sapienza University of Rome

Dylan Di Biase                                                                               Sapienza University of Rome

Arianna Aversano                                                                           Sapienza University of Rome

Anna Livia Croella                                                                         Sapienza University of Rome

Federico Zomparelli                                                     University of Cassino and Southern Latium



The presentations from the tutorial were: Understanding how things happen, The four principles of FRAM, First steps of FRAM.

Workshop presentations

Hideki Nomoto: FRAM analysis of walking in Tokyo

Abdullah Abalkhili; Modelling Nuclear Safety: A Sociotechnical Systems Approach

Cristina Martelli: Using FRAM to reduce skill mismatch: an application to public employment offices guidelines

Jeranette Hounsgaard:  Five years of applying FRAM in Danish Healthcare settings

Manuela Vieli: Effect of standardisation on the partial process of wheelset exchange in a repair centre of Swiss Federal Raiways

Roger Woltjer: Functional Modelling ofthe expected and actual impact of resilience guidelines on European critical infrastructure crisis management - added vaslue of functional modelling for crisis mamgement

Pedro Ferreira: Understanding the impacts of enhanced automation in future ATM performance

Shigeru Kusakabe: Analysing software development process using FRAM: Case Study of personal level software process

Jeanette Hounsgaard: FRAM supporting the implementation of a patient responsible consultant

Miha Pielick: Automation of the FRAM method for the purpose of Hazard Analysis

Doug Smith: Applying and visualising the FRAM for Arctic ship navigation

Riccardo Patriarca: A multi- layer FRAM: the Abstraction/ Agency framework for modelling complex sociotechnical systems.

Arie Adriaensen: Functional Analysis of a Joint Cognitive System: Agent and Inter Agent Transformation Flow, a case study in a Cockpit Environment

David Slater (submitted for Group Discussion): FRAM Model Visualiser - Where Next?

The Abstracts can be found here

Group discussions

The FRAM Sandbox Facility

We are looking forward to seeing the results of using this new facility and seeing the range and scope of applications and studies significantly extended. Perhaps we will see some examples at the next FRAMily Workshop in Kyoto next year, COVID willing.

© Copyright Erik Hollnagel 2016. All Rights Reserved.