Papers, book chapters and conference presentations about the FRAM


Another paper which illustrates the wide range of applications for the FRAM approach. Saurin, T.A. (2017). “Removing Waste While Preserving Slack: The Lean and Complexity Perspectives” In:

LC3 2017 Volume II – Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean

Construction (IGLC), Walsh, K., Sacks, R., Brilakis, I. (eds.), Heraklion, Greece, pp. 217-224. DOI:


This is an interesting review which highlights the rise in the use and and the ability of FRAM to give deeper systemic insights into Accident Analyses.

H.C.A. Wienen, F.A. Bukhsh, E. Vriezekolk, R.J. Wieringa, Accident Analysis Methods and Models — a Systematic Literature Review, CTIT Technical Report, 2017–06–04

The list below is not complete, but at least gives an impression of the range of applications where FRAM has been applied.

Linda de Vries, Department of Product and Production Development, Division of Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology, Work as Done? Understanding the Practice of Sociotechnical Work in the Maritime Domain, Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision


Albery, S., Borys, D. & Tepe, S. (2016). Advantages for risk assessment: Evaluating learnings from question sets inspired by the FRAM and the risk matrix in a manufacturing environment. Safety Science, 89, 180-189.

Cabrera Aguilera, M. V., Bastos da Fonseca, B., Ferris, T. K., Rodriguez Vidal, M. C., Rodrigues de Carvalho, P. V. (2016). Modelling performance variabilities in oil spill response to improve system resilience, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2016.02.018

Alm, H., & Woltjer, R. (2010). Patient safety investigation through the lens of FRAM. In: D. de Waard, A. Axelsson, M. Berglund, B. Peters & C. Weikert (Eds.),Human factors: a system view of human, technology and organisation, Shaker Publishing, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 153-165.

Amorim, A. G. & Perreira, C. M. N. A. (2015). Improvisation at Workplace and Accident Causation - An Exploratory Study. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1804–1811. Anand, N. (2015). Risk assessment at the sharp end. Seaways, June 2015.

Bellini, E., Nesi, P., Pantaleo, G. & Venturi, A. (2016). Funtional Resonance Analysis Method based-Decision Support tool for Urban Transport System Resilience Management. Proceedings of 2016 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2).

Belmonte, F., Schön, W., Heurley, L. & Capel, R. (2010). Interdisciplinary safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems based on the Functional Resonance Accident Model: an application to railway traffic supervision. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 2010. (

Clay-Williams, R., Hounsgaard, J. and Hollnagel, E. (2015). Where the rubber meets the road: using FRAM to align work-as-imagined with work-as-done when implementing clinical guidelines. Implementation Science, 10:125.

De Carvalho, P. V. R. (2011). The use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) in a mid-air collision to understand some characteristics of the air traffic management system resilience. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 96(11), 1482-1498.

Duan, G., Tian, J. & Wu, J. (2015). Extended FRAM by Integrating with Model Checking to Effectively Explore Hazard Evolution. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Article ID 196107.

Frost, B. and Mo, J. P. T. (2014). System Hazard Analysis of a Complex Socio-Technical System: The Functional Resonance Analysis Method in Hazard Identification. Australian System Safety Conference, Melbourne Australia. 28 — 30 May 2014.

Furniss, D., Curzon, P. & Blandford, A. (2016). Using FRAM beyond safety: A case study to explore how sociotechnical systems can flourish or stall. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, DOI 10.1080/1463922X.2016.1155238

Herrera, I., A. & Woltjer, R. (2008). Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis. ESREL. (Also in Martorell et al. (eds), Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications. Taylor & Francis, 2009).

Hollnagel, E., Pruchnicki, S., Woltjer, R. & Etcher, S. (2008). Analysis of Comair flight 5191 with the functional resonance accident model. 8th International Symposium of the Australian Aviation Psychology Association. Sydney, Australia.

Lundblad, K., Speziali, J., Woltjer, R. & Lundberg, J. (2008). FRAM as a risk assessment method for nuclear fuel transportation. 4th International Conference on Working on Safety. Crete, Greece.

Macchi, L., Hollnagel, E. & Leonhardt, J. (2008). A systemic approach to HRA: A FRAM modelling of Control Overflight activity. 4th Eurocontrol Annual Safety R&D Seminar. Southampton, UK.

Nouvel, D., Travadel, S. & Hollnagel, E. (2007).Introduction of the concept of functional resonance in the analysis of a near-accident in aviation. 33rd ESReDA Seminar: Future challenges of accident investigation. Ispra, Italy.

Patriarca, R., Di Gravio, G. & Costantino, F. (2017). A Monte Carlo evolution of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) to assess performance variability in complex systems. Safety Science, 91, 49–60.

Pereira, Ana G. A. A. (2013). Introduction to the use of FRAM on the effectiveness assessment of a radiopharmaceutical dispatches process. 2013 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference (INAC 2013). Recife, PE, Brazil, November 24-29, 2013.

Praetorius, G & Kataria, A. (2016). Resilience and complexity in a maritime service supply chain's everyday operation Service Supply Chain Systems (pp. 121-137): CRC Press.

Praetorius, G., Graziano, A., Schröder-Hinrichs, J. U., & Baldauf, M. (2016). FRAM in FSA - Introducing a function-based approach to the Fromal Safety Assessment framework. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) Orlando, Florida, US.

Praetorius, G., Hollnagel, E., & Dahlman, J. (2015). Modelling Vessel Traffic Service to understand resilience in everyday operations. Reliability Engineering & System Safety.

Praetorius, G., Lundh, M., & Lützhöft, M. (2011). Learning From The Past For Pro-activity – A Re-analysis Of The Accident Of The MV Herald Of Free Enterprise. Paper presented at the Resilience Engineering IV, Sophia Antipolis.

Rosa, L. V., Haddad, A. N. & de Carvalho, P. V. R. (2015). Assessing risk in sustainable construction using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). Cognition, Technology & Work, DOI 10.1007/s10111-015-0337-z

Sawaragi, T., Horiguchi, Y. & Hina, A. (2006). Safety analysis of systemic accidents triggered by performance deviation. SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference 2006. Bexco, Busan, South Korea.

Shirali, G. A., Ebrahipour, V. & Salahi, L. M. (2013). Proactive Risk Assessment to Identify Emergent Risks using Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM): A Case Study in an Oil Process Unit. Iran Occupational Health, 10(6): 32-43.

Steen, R. & Aven, T. (2010) A risk perspective suitable for resilience engineering. Safety Science.

Tian, J.,Wu,J., Yang, Q. & Zhao, T. (2016). FRAMA: A safety assessment approach based on Functional Resonance Analysis Method. Safety Science, 85, 41–52.

Toroody, A. B., Abaiee, M. M., Gholamnia, R., Torody, M. B. & Nejad, N. H. (2016). Developing a Risk-Based Approach for Optimizing Human Reliability Assessment in an Offshore Operation. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 2016, 6, 25-34.

Woltjer, R. (2007). A systemic functional resonance analysis of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident. Human Fact. Econ. Aspects Saf., 83

Woltjer, R. & Hollnagel, E. (2008). Modeling and evaluation of air traffic management automation using the functional resonance accident model (FRAM). 8th International Symposium of the Australian Aviation Psychology Association. Sydney, Australia.

Woltjer, R. & Hollnagel, E. (2008). Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment. 4th International Conference on Working on Safety. Crete, Greece.

Woltjer, R., Smith, K. & Hollnagel, E. (2007). Functional modeling and constraint management in command and control: two microworld studies. Proceedings of the 10th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-machine Systems (IFAC-HMS 2007). September 4-6, Seoul, South Korea.

Zheng, Z., Tian, J. & Zhao, T. (2016). Refining operation guidelines with model-checking-aided FRAM to improve manufacturing processes: a case study for aeroengine blade forging. Cognition, Technology & Work, DOI 10.1007/s10111-016-0391-1.