The FRAM Sandbox Facility

Extending the capabilities of the FMV

There is an increasing interest in utilising the FRAM approach for the analysis of what exactly is going on in complex sociotechnical systems in practical high hazard environments. There are, for example, a number of ongoing projects at the moment in aviation, self-driving vehicles and, of course, on the challenges of the COVID 19 pandemic for healthcare responses. But as well as these practical applications there is an increasing interest from the academic community, in extending and developing further, the underpinning concepts, as shown in the recent review (below)

Books about the FRAM


Hollnagel, E. (2004). Barriers and accident prevention. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. (Chapter 6 describes the FRAM, although the acronym at that time had a slightly different meaning.)

Hollnagel, E. (2012). FRAM – The Functional Resonance Analysis Method. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Japanese translation: 社会技術システムの安全分析 : FRAMガイドブック. Tokyo, Japan: Kaibundo (2013).

Chinese translation:  功能共振分析方法--复杂社会技术系统建模. Beijing, China: National Defense Industry Press (2015).

© Copyright Erik Hollnagel 2016. All Rights Reserved.