The FRAM Model Interpreter



Extending the capabilities of the FMV

There is an increasing interest in utilising the FRAM approach for the analysis of what exactly is going on in complex sociotechnical systems in practical high hazard environments. There are, for example, a number of ongoing projects at the moment in aviation, self-driving vehicles and, of course, on the challenges of the COVID 19 pandemic for healthcare responses. But as well as these practical applications there is an increasing interest from the academic community, in extending and developing further, the underpinning concepts, as shown in the recent review (below)

FRAM Model Interpreter (FMI)

Model Checking and Interpreting

The FRAM Model Interpreter (FMI) is a software tool that can be used to interpret a

FRAM model and through that determine how the described activity or task may develop.

The FMI provides a realisation or simulation of a given model in the sense that it evaluates

the consequences of the couplings specified by the aspects of the model’s functions and

thereby shows how an event can develop. The FMI can therefore be used to determine

how the potential couplings defined in the model will be realised as actual couplings for

specified conditions – an instantiation.

The current version  of the FMI (Basic Plus, updated July 12th 2019) can be found here.

It needs an externals file to be saved in the same folder which can be found here.

A manual with the basic theory and instructions for use with an example can be found here

The FMI has been developed and written by Erik Hollnagell ( The FRAMily believes this will make a significant step forward in assisting the development of meaningful and useful FRAM models. This is particularly important in handlling some of the more extensive models of complex systems now being utilised as below.

Please provide feedback both about the FMI and any support software ideas and share your  interesting applications and/or examples.

Rees Hill ( is essentially, with Erik, the lead in an active software development team (Hill, Patriarca, Smith, Slater and Comer). Any suggestions, ideas, or contrbutions are eagerly anticipated, actively encouraged and gratefully accepted.

Conditions of use

The FMI, as with all the software developed here, regardless of version, is provided by the copyright holders and contributors “as is” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright holder or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.

The FMI is provided free of charge and must not be sold for commercial purposes in either the original or a repackaged form.

The FRAM Sandbox Facility

© Copyright Erik Hollnagel 2016. All Rights Reserved.